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The Business Case for Emotional Intelligence

The following 19 points build a case for how emotional intelligence contributes to the bottom line in any work organization. Based on data from a variety of sources, it can be a valuable tool for HR practitioners and managers who need to make the case in their own organizations. The Consortium also invites submissions of other research for the Business Case. All submissions will be reviewed to determine their suitability. Read more»

Guidelines for Best Practice

These guidelines are based on an exhaustive review of the research literature in training and development, counseling and psychotherapy, and behavior change. The guidelines are additive and synergistic; to be effective, social and emotional learning experiences need not adhere to all of these guidelines, but the chances for success increase with each one that is followed. Read More»

Research Digest

This section of the EI Consortium web site is intended to keep you updated with the latest research findings. We will be summarizing the latest research in the area of emotional intelligence in the workplace by providing you with abstracts of the latest articles from the literature. We will be highlighting a different area from the scholarly literature on emotional intelligence. If you want research updates sent to you automatically, just sign up for our monthly newsletter.

Momm, T., Blickle, G., Liu, Y., Wihler, A., Kholin, M., & Menges, J. I. (2015). It pays to have an eye for emotions: Emotion recognition ability indirectly predicts annual income. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36, 147-163

This study examines how the emotion recognition ability relates to annual income. Participants were 142 employees working in various jobs and organizations in Germany. Emotion recognition was assessed with the Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy 2, a self-report measure which asks participants to identify facial and vocal emotional expressions. Results revealed that the relationship between emotion recognition ability and annual income is mediated by political and interpersonal skills. This means that the better people are at recognizing emotions, the better they handle the politics in organizations and the interpersonal aspects of work life, and thus the more they earn in their jobs. The findings imply that emotional abilities enable people to be more successful at work.

Parke, M.R., Seo, M.G., & Sherf, E.N. (2015). Regulating and facilitating: The role of emotional intelligence in maintaining and using positive affect for creativity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 100(3), 917-934.

This study examined how two facets of EI - emotion regulation and emotion facilitation - can shape employee creativity, an important element to driving innovation at work. The study used a multimethod (MSCEIT, experience sampling, survey) and multisource (archival, self-reported, supervisor-reported) research design of early career managers in the U.S. across a wide range of jobs. The study found that emotion regulation ability enables employees to maintain higher positive affect (e.g., excitement and enthusiasm) while emotion facilitation ability enables employees to use their positive affect to enhance their creativity, as measured by their supervisors. A sample item for creativity was: "This person comes up with new and practical ideas to improve performance." The findings indicate that EI is an important variable to consider when hiring knowledge workers to produce creativity in jobs. Because EI tests exist, organizations could include these tests with other personality measures for screening purposes. Employees can also be trained to increase their abilities at managing their emotional states and responses to work requirements.

Koveshnikov, A., Wechtler, H., & Dejoux, C. (2014). Cross-cultural adjustment of expatriates: The role of emotional intelligence and gender. Journal of World Business, 49, 362-371.

The study examines the role of EI in cross-cultural adjustment of expatriates on international assignments. Participants were 269 expatriates from a French company working in 133 countries. The independent variable, EI, was measured using SSEIT, a self-report instrument measuring appraisal, expression, regulation and utilization of emotion. The dependent variable, cross-cultural adjustment, was measured from the point of view of the expatriate based on three factors (general adjustment, interaction adjustment, and work adjustment). Cultural similarity and prior international experience were used as control variables. The results revealed a significant and positive relationship between EI and expatriates' cultural adjustment after controlling for cultural similarity and international experience. This finding suggests that it may be beneficial for organizations to leverage EI as a factor when selecting employees to go on expensive international assignments.

Mahon, E.G., Taylor, S.N., & Boyatzis, R.E. (2014). Antecedents of organizational engagement: exploring vision, mood and perceived organizational support with emotional intelligence as a moderator. Frontiers in Psychology.  Link to full-text article: http://journal.frontiersin.org/Journal/10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01322/abstract

As organizational leaders worry about the appalling low percentage of people who feel engaged in their work, academics are trying to understand what causes an increase in engagement. We collected survey data from 231 team members from two organizations. We examined the impact of team members’ emotional intelligence (EI) and their perception of shared personal vision, shared positive mood, and perceived organizational support (POS) on the members’ degree of organizational engagement. We found shared vision, shared mood, and POS have a direct, positive association with engagement. In addition, shared vision and POS interact with EI to positively influence engagement. Besides highlighting the importance of shared personal vision, positive mood, and POS, our study contributes to the emergent understanding of EI by revealing EI’s amplifying effect on shared vision and POS in relation to engagement. We conclude by discussing the research and practical implications of this study.

O'Boyle, E. H., Jr., R. H. Humphrey, et al. (2011). The relation between emotional intelligence and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 32(5), 788-818.

This meta-analysis builds upon a previous meta-analysis by (1) including 65 per cent more studies that have over twice the sample size to estimate the relationships between emotional intelligence (EI) and job performance; (2) using more current meta-analytical studies for estimates of relationships among personality variables and for cognitive ability and job performance; (3) using the three-stream approach for classifying EI research; (4) performing tests for differences among streams of EI research and their relationships with personality and cognitive intelligence; (5) using latest statistical procedures such as dominance analysis; and (6) testing for publication bias. We classified EI studies into three streams: (1) ability-based models that use objective test items; (2) self-report or peer-report measures based on the four-branch model of EI; and (3) ''mixed models'' of emotional competencies. The three streams have corrected correlations ranging from 0.24 to 0.30 with job performance. The three streams correlated differently with cognitive ability and with neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. Streams 2 and 3 have the largest incremental validity beyond cognitive ability and the Five Factor Model (FFM). Dominance analysis demonstrated that all three streams of EI exhibited substantial relative importance in the presence of FFM and intelligence when predicting job performance. Publication bias had negligible influence on observed effect sizes. The results support the overall validity of EI.





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