Ethan Kross, Ph.D.

Affiliation: University of Michigan


Ethan Kross received his BA from the University of Pennsylvania and his MA and PhD from Columbia University. He is an Associate Professor in the Psychology Department at the University of Michigan and the Director of the University of Michigan Emotion and Self-Control Laboratory. He is also a Faculty Associate at the University of Michigan’s Research Center for Group Dynamics, Center for Cultural Neuroscience, and Depression Research Center. The goal of Ethan’s research is to shed light on the psychological and physiological processes that allow people to control emotions that undermine their goals and compromise their health. He uses a variety of tools (e.g., behavioral, diary, physiological, neuroscience-fMRI methods) to address this issue and focuses on both normal-healthy and clinical populations. 


Grossmann, I., & Kross, E. (2014). Exploring 'Solomon's paradox": Self-distancing eliminates the self-other asymmetry in wise reasoning about close relations in younger and older adults. Psychological Science.

Kross, E., Bruehlman-Senecal, E., Park, J., Burson, A., Dougherty, A., Shablack, H., Bremner, R., Moser, J., & Ayduk, O. (2014). Self-talk as a regulatory mechanism: How you do it matters. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106, 304-324.

Berman, M.G., Yourganov, G., Askren, M.K., Ayduk, O., Casey, B.J., Gotlib, I., Kross, E., McIntosh, R., Strother, S., Wilson, N.L., Zayas, V., Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., & Jonides, J. (2013). Dimensionality of brain networks linked to life-long individual differences in self-control. Nature Communications, 5, 1373.

Kross, E., Verduyn, P., Demiralp, E., Park, J., Lee, D., Lin, N., Shablack, H., Jonides, J., & Ybarra, O. (2013). Facebook use predicts declines in subjective well-being in young adults. PLOS One, 8(8), 1-6.

Krpan, K.M., Kross, E., Berman, M.G., Deldin, P.J., Askren, M.K., & Jonides, J. (2013). The benefits of expressive writing among people diagnosed with major depressive disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 150, 1148-1151.

Ybarra, O., Kross, E., Lee, D.S., Yufang, Z., Dougherty, A., & Sanchez-Burks, J. (2013). Toward a more contextual, psychological, and dynamic model of emotional intelligence. Advances in Positive Organizational Scholarship.

Ybarra, O., Kross, E., & Sanchez-Burks, J. (2013). The “big idea” that is yet to be: Towards a more motivated, contextual, and dynamic model of emotional intelligence. Academy of Management Perspectives.

Mischowski, D., Kross, E., & Bushman, B. (2012). Reflecting over provocations “in the heat of the moment” from a self-distanced perspective reduces aggressive affect, cognition, and behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 1187-1191.

Kross, E., Gard, D., Deldin, P., Clifton, J., & Ayduk, O. (2012). Asking “why” from a distance: Its cognitive and emotional consequences for people with Major Depressive Disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121, 559-569.

Selcuk, E., Zayas, V., Gunaydin, G., Hazan, C., & Kross, E. (2012). Mental representations of attachment figures facilitate emotional recovery following upsetting autobiographical memory recall. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103, 362-378.

Kross, E., & Ayduk, O. (2011). Making meaning out of negative experiences by self-distancing. Current Directions in Psychological Science20(3), 187-191.

Kross, E., & Grossman, I. (2011). Boosting wisdom: Distance from the self enhances wise reasoning, attitudes and behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 14(1), 43-48.

Kross, E., Berman, M., Mischel, W., Smith, E.E., & Wager, T. (2011). Social rejection shares somatosensory representations with physical pain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences108(15), 6270-6275.

Ayduk, O., & Kross, E. (2010). Asking why without ruminating: The role of self-distancing in enabling self-reflection. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4, 841-854.

Ayduk, O., & Kross, E. (2010). From a distance: Implications of spontaneous self-distancing for adaptive self-reflection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 98, 809-829.

Berman, M., Nee, D., Peltier, S., Kross, E., Deldin, P., & Jonides, J. (2010). Depression, rumination, and the default network. Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, 6, 548-555.

Grossman, I., & Kross, E. (2010). The impact of culture on adaptive vs. maladaptive self-reflection. Psychological Science, 21, 1150-1157.

Ayduk, O., & Kross, E. (2008). Enhancing the pace of recovery: Differential effects of analyzing negative experiences from a self-distanced vs. self-immersed perspective on blood pressure reactivity. Psychological Science, 19, 229-231.

Kross, E., & Ayduk, O. (2008). Facilitating adaptive emotional analysis: Short-term and long-term outcomes distinguishing distanced-analysis of negative emotions from immersed-analysis and distraction. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 924-938.

Kross, E., Egner, T., Downey, G., Ochsner, K., & Hirsch, J. (2007). Neural dynamics of rejection sensitivity. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 945-956.

Kross, E., Ayduk, O., & Mischel, W. (2005). When asking “why” does not hurt: Distinguishing
rumination from reflective processing of negative emotions. Psychological Science, 16, 709-715.

Book Chapters

Kross, E., & Mischel, W. (2010). From stimulus control to self-control: Towards an integrative
understanding of the processes underlying willpower. In R. Hassin, K. Ochsner, & Y. Trope. (Eds.), From Society to Brain: The New Sciences of Self Control (pp. 428-446). New York: Oxford University Press.

Kross, E., Mischel, W., & Shoda, Y. (2010). Enabling self-control: A cognitive affective processing system (CAPS) approach to problematic behavior. In J. Maddux & J. Tangney (Eds.), Social Psychological Foundations of Clinical Psychology (pp. 375-394). New York: Guilford Press.

Kross, E., & Ochsner, K. (2010). Integrating research on self-control across multiple levels of analysis: A social cognitive neuroscience approach. In R. Hassin, K. Ochsner, & Y. Trope. (Eds.), From Society to Brain: The New Sciences of Self Control (pp. 76-92). New York: Oxford University Press.

Mischel, W., DeSmet, A., & Kross, E. (2006). Self-regulation in the service of conflict resolution. In M.Deutsch, P.T. Coleman, and E.C. Marcus (Eds.), Handbook of Conflict Resolution (2nd ed., pp. 294-313). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.






EI Consortium Copyright Policy

Any written material on this web site can be copied and used in other sources as long as the user acknowledges the author of the material (if indicated on the web site) and indicates that the source of the material was the web site for the Consortium for Research on Emotional Intelligence in Organizations (