- Business Case for Emotional Intelligence
- Do Emotional Intelligence Programs Work?
- Emotional Competence Framework
- Emotional Intelligence: What it is and Why it Matters
- Executives' Emotional Intelligence (mis) Perceptions
- Guidelines for Best Practice
- Guidelines for Securing Organizational Support For EI
- Johnson & Johnson Leadership Study
- Ontario Principals’ Council Leadership Study
- Technical Report on Developing Emotional Intelligence
- Emotional Intelligence Quotient (EQ-i)
- Emotional & Social Competence Inventory 360 (ESCI)
- Emotional & Social Competence Inventory-University (ESCI-U)
- Genos Emotional Intelligence Inventory (Genos EI)
- Group Emotional Competence Inventory (GEC)
- Mayer Salovey Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT)
- Profile of Emotional Competence (PEC)
- Schutte Self-Report Inventory (SSRI)
- Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue)
- Wong's Emotional Intelligence Scale
- Work Group Emotional Intelligence Profile (WEIP)
- Model Programs
- Achievement Motivation Training
- Care Giver Support Program
- Competency-Based Selection
- Emotional Competence Training - Financial Advisors
- Executive Coaching
- Human Relations Training
- Interaction Management
- Interpersonal Conflict Management - Law Enforcement
- Interpersonal Effectiveness Training - Medical Students
- JOBS Program
- Self-Management Training to Increase Job Attendance
- Stress Management Training
- Weatherhead MBA Program
- Williams' Lifeskills Program
- Article Reprints
Definitions and Critiques of Emotional Intelligence
UPDATED APRIL 2015
Antonakis, J., & Dietz, J. (2010). Emotional intelligence: On definitions, neuroscience, and marshmallows. [Comment/Reply]. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 3(2), 165-170. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2010.01219.x
Ashkanasy, N. M., & Daus, C. S. (2005). Rumors of the death of emotional intelligence in organizational behavior are vastly exaggerated. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(4), 441-452. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.320
Austin, E. J., & Saklofske, D. H. (2014). Introduction to the special issue on emotional intelligence. [Editorial]. Personality and Individual Differences, 65, 1-2. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.02.006
Bar-On, R. (2006). The Bar-On model of emotional-social intelligence (ESI). Psicothema, 18(Suppl), 13-25.
Bar-On, R. (2010). Emotional intelligence: An integral part of positive psychology. South African Journal of Psychology, 40(1), 54-62.
Boyatzis, R. E. (2008). Competencies in the 21st century. [Editorial]. Journal of Management Development, 27(1), 5-12. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02621710810840730
Boyatzis, R. E. (2009). Competencies as a behavioral approach to emotional intelligence. [Editorial]. Journal of Management Development, 28(9), 749-770. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02621710910987647
Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., & Salovey, P. (2011). Emotional intelligence: Implications for personal, social, academic, and workplace success. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 5(1), 88-103. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2010.00334.x
Cherniss, C. (2010). Emotional intelligence: New insights and further clarifications. [Comment/Reply]. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 3(2), 183-191. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2010.01222.x
Cherniss, C. (2010). Emotional intelligence: Toward clarification of a concept. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 3(2), 110-126. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2010.01231.x
Cherniss, G., Extein, M., Goleman, D., & Weissberg, R. P. (2006). Emotional Intelligence: What does the Research Really Indicate? [Comment/Reply]. Educational Psychologist, 41(4), 239-245. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15326985ep4104_4
Cote, S. (2010). Taking the "intelligence" in emotional intelligence seriously. [Comment/Reply]. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 3(2), 127-130. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2010.01211.x
Daus, C. S., & Ashkanasy, N. M. (2005). The case for the ability-based model of emotional intelligence in organizational behavior. [Comment/Reply]. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(4), 453-466. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.321
Davies, M., Stankov, L., & Roberts, R. D. (1998). Emotional intelligence: In search of an elusive construct. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(4), 989-1015. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1249
Dulewicz, V., & Higgs, M. (2000). Emotional intelligence: A review and evaluation study. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 15(4), 341-372. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02683940010330993
Emmerling, R. J., & Boyatzis, R. E. (2012). Emotional and social intelligence competencies: Cross cultural implications. Cross Cultural Management, 19(1), 4-18. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13527601211195592
Fambrough, M. J., & Hart, R. K. (2008). Emotions in leadership development: A critique of emotional intelligence. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 10(5), 740-758. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1523422308323542
Fineman, S. (2004). Getting the measure of emotion--And the cautionary tale of emotional intelligence. Human Relations, 57(6), 719-740. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726704044953
Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56(3), 218-226. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.218
Gignac, G. E. (2010). On a nomenclature for emotional intelligence research. [Comment/Reply]. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 3(2), 131-135. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2010.01212.x
Gohm, C. L. (2004). Moving forward with emotional intelligence. [Comment/Reply]. Psychological Inquiry, 15(3), 222-227.
Harms, P., & Crede, M. (2010). Remaining issues in emotional intelligence research: Construct overlap, method artifacts, and lack of incremental validity. [Comment/Reply]. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 3(2), 154-158. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2010.01217.x
Jordan, P. J., Dasborough, M. T., Daus, C. S., & Ashkanasy, N. M. (2010). A call to context. [Comment/Reply]. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 3(2), 145-148. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2010.01215.x
Joseph, D. L., & Newman, D. A. (2010). Emotional intelligence: An integrative meta-analysis and cascading model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(1), 54-78. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0017286
Kaplan, S., Cortina, J., & Ruark, G. A. (2010). Oops...We did it again: Industrial-organizational's focus on emotional intelligence instead of on its relationships to work outcomes. [Comment/Reply]. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 3(2), 171-177. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2010.01220.x
Kong, D. T. (2014). Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT/MEIS) and overall, verbal, and nonverbal intelligence: Meta-analytic evidence and critical contingencies. Personality and Individual Differences, 66, 171-175. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.03.028
Landy, F. J. (2005). Some historical and scientific issues related to research on emotional intelligence. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(4), 411-424. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.317
Lindebaum, D., & Cartwright, S. (2011). Leadership effectiveness: The costs and benefits of being emotionally intelligent. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32(3), 281-290. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01437731111123924
Locke, E. A. (2005). Why emotional intelligence is an invalid concept. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(4), 425-431. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.318
Maheshwari, S. (2012). Current research on emotional intelligence and assessment technique. Indian Journal of Community Psychology, 8(1), 172-182.
Matthews, G., Roberts, R. D., & Zeidner, M. (2004). Seven myths about emotional intelligence. Psychological Inquiry, 15(3), 179-196. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli1503_01
Mayer, J. D., Caruso, D. R., & Salovey, P. (1999). Emotional intelligence meets traditional standards for an intelligence. Intelligence, 27(4), 267-298. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0160-2896%2899%2900016-1
Mayer, J. D., Roberts, R. D., & Barsade, S. G. (2008). Human abilities: Emotional intelligence. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 507-536. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093646
Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1993). The intelligence of emotional intelligence. [Comment/Reply]. Intelligence, 17(4), 433-442. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0160-2896%2893%2990010-3
Mayer, J. D., & Salovey, P. (1995). Emotional intelligence and the construction and regulation of feelings. Applied & Preventive Psychology, 4(3), 197-208. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0962-1849%2805%2980058-7
Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2004). Emotional intelligence: Theory, findings, and implications. Psychological Inquiry, 15(3), 197-215. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli1503_02
Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2004). A further consideration of the issues of emotional intelligence. Psychological Inquiry, 15(3), 249-255. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli1503_05
Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., & Caruso, D. R. (2008). Emotional intelligence: New ability or eclectic traits? American Psychologist, 63(6), 503-517. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.63.6.503
Mayer, J. D., Salovey, P., Caruso, D. R., & Sitarenios, G. (2001). Emotional intelligence as a standard intelligence. [Comment/Reply]. Emotion, 1(3), 232-242. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1528-35126.96.36.199
McCleskey, J. (2014). Emotional intelligence and leadership: A review of the progress, controversy, and criticism. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 22(1), 76-93. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJOA-03-2012-0568
McNaughton, N., & Zubairi, M. S. (2014). Emotional intelligence: Convinced or lulled? [Comment/Reply]. Medical Education, 48(5), 456-458. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/medu.12455
Meyer, B., & Fletcher, T. B. (2007). Emotional intelligence: A theoretical overview and implications for research and professional practice in sport psychology. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 19(1), 1-15. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10413200601102904
Mikolajczak, M. (2009). Going beyond the ability-trait debate: The three-level model of emotional intelligence. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 5(2), 25-31.
Nagler, U. K., Reiter, K. J., Furtner, M. R., & Rauthmann, J. F. (2014). Is there a "dark intelligence"? Emotional intelligence is used by dark personalities to emotionally manipulate others. Personality and Individual Differences, 65, 47-52.
Oatley, K. (2004). Emotional intelligence and the intelligence of emotions. [Comment/Reply]. Psychological Inquiry, 15(3), 216-221. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli1503_03
O'Connor, P. J., & Athota, V. S. (2013). The intervening role of agreeableness in the relationship between trait emotional intelligence and machiavellianism: Reassessing the potential dark side of ei. Personality and Individual Differences Jul(Pagination), No Pagination Specified. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2013.06.006
Ogle, J. A., & Bushnell, J. A. (2014). The appeal of emotional intelligence. [Comment/Reply]. Medical Education, 48(5), 458-460. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/medu.12433
Opengart, R. (2005). Emotional Intelligence and Emotion Work: Examining Constructs From an Interdisciplinary Framework. Human Resource Development Review, 4(1), 49-62. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1534484304273817
Petrides, K. (2010). Trait emotional intelligence theory. [Comment/Reply]. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 3(2), 136-139. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2010.01213.x
Petrides, K., Pita, R., & Kokkinaki, F. (2007). The location of trait emotional intelligence in personality factor space. British Journal of Psychology, 98(2), 273-289. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1348/000712606X120618
Riggio, R. E. (2010). Before emotional intelligence: Research on nonverbal, emotional, and social competencies. [Comment/Reply]. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 3(2), 178-182. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2010.01221.x
Roberts, R. D., MacCann, C., Matthews, G., & Zeidner, M. (2010). Emotional intelligence: Toward a consensus of models and measures. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4(10), 821-840. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2010.00277.x
Roberts, R. D., Matthews, G., & Zeidner, M. (2010). Emotional intelligence: Muddling through theory and measurement. [Comment/Reply]. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 3(2), 140-144. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2010.01214.x
Roberts, R. D., Zeidner, M., & Matthews, G. (2001). Does emotional intelligence meet traditional standards for an intelligence? Some new data and conclusions. Emotion, 1(3), 196-231. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1528-35188.8.131.52
Salovey, P., & Mayer, J. D. (1989). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9(3), 185-211.
Schaie, K. (2001). Emotional intelligence: Psychometric status and developmental characteristics--Comment on Roberts, Zeidner, and Matthews (2001). [Comment/Reply]. Emotion, 1(3), 243-248. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1528-35184.108.40.206
Shulman, T. E., & Hemenover, S. H. (2006). Is Dispositional Emotional Intelligence Synonymous with Personality? Self and Identity, 5(2), 147-171. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15298860600586206
Spector, P. E. (2005). Introduction: Emotional intelligence. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 26(4), 409-410. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.316
van der Zee, K., & Wabeke, R. (2004). Is Trait-Emotional Intelligence Simply or More Than Just a Trait? European Journal of Personality, 18(4), 243-263. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/per.517
Van Rooy, D. L., & Viswesvaran, C. (2004). Emotional intelligence: A meta-analytic investigation of predictive validity and nomological net. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65(1), 71-95. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0001-8791%2803%2900076-9
Van Rooy, D. L., Viswesvaran, C., & Pluta, P. (2005). An Evaluation of Construct Validity: What Is This Thing Called Emotional Intelligence? Human Performance, 18(4), 445-462. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327043hup1804_9
Van Rooy, D. L., Whitman, D. S., & Viswesvaran, C. (2010). Emotional intelligence: Additional questions still unanswered. [Comment/Reply]. Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Perspectives on Science and Practice, 3(2), 149-153. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-9434.2010.01216.x
Walter, F., Cole, M. S., & Humphrey, R. H. (2011). Emotional intelligence: Sine qua non of leadership or folderol. The Academy of Management Perspectives, 25(1), 45-59. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMP.2011.59198449
Warwick, J., & Nettelbeck, T. (2004). Emotional intelligence is...? Personality and Individual Differences, 37(5), 1091-1100. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2003.12.003
Zeidner, M., Matthews, G.,& Roberts, R. D. (2001). Slow down, you move too fast: Emotional intelligence remains an "elusive" intelligence. [Comment/Reply]. Emotion, 1(3), 265-275. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1528-35220.127.116.115
Zeidner, M., Matthews, G.,& Roberts, R. D. (2004). Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace: A Critical Review. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 53(3), 371-399. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2004.00176.x
Zeidner, M., Roberts, R. D.,& Matthews, G. (2004). The emotional intelligence bandwagon: Too fast to live, too young to die? [Comment/Reply]. Psychological Inquiry, 15(3), 239-248. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli1503_04
Zeidner, M., Roberts, R. D.,& Matthews, G. (2008). The science of emotional intelligence: Current consensus and controversies. European Psychologist, 13(1), 64-78. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040.13.1.64
News and Events
Check out our new EVENTS section to find out about the latest conferences and training opportunities involving members of the EI Consortium.
New Video Series From Dr. Daniel Goleman
Dr. Daniel Goleman has released a new video series outlining the 12 competencies of emotional intelligence in Crucial Competence: Building Emotional and Social Leadership. The series features in-depth video interviews with Daniel Goleman, George Kohlrieser, Richard Davidson, Richard Boyatzis, and Vanessa Druskat about how to foster emotionally intelligent leadership skills from an individual and organizational standpoint. It includes research-based evidence to show how EI competences differentiate performance, and specific methods to integrate these findings for effective leadership.
Listen to Consortium member Chuck Wolfe interview some of the thought leaders in emotional intelligence.
Interview with Dr. Maurice Elias
The show is about the Joys and Oys of Parenting, a book written by a respected colleague, Dr. Maurice Elias, an expert in parenting and emotional and social intelligence. Dr. Elias wrote a book tying Judaism and emotional intelligence together to help parents with the challenging, compelling task of raising emotionally healthy children. And while there are fascinating links to Judaism the book is really for everybody. Click here to listen to the interview.
Interview with Geetu Bharwaney
Challenges abound and life is stressful for many. So how do we cope? Chuck Wolfe interviews Geetu Bharwaney about her book, Emotional Resilience. Geetu offers research, insights, and most importantly practical tips for helping people bounce back from adversity. Click here to listen to the interview.
Interview with Dr. Helen Riess
Changes in healthcare have led to pressures on providers to spend less time with patients resulting in less time for questions, empathy and compassion. Helen Riess, M.D., a Harvard Medical Associate Clinical Professor of Psychiatry, and Chief Scientist and Chairman of Empathetics, is one person working hard to reverse this trend. Dr. Riess's company teaches empathy to doctors and other healthcare professionals often leading to very positive outcomes. Click here to listen to the interview.
Interview with Dr. Daniel Goleman
Listen to an interview by with Dr. Goleman on his new book Focus: The Hidden Driver of Excellence. In the book Dan helps readers to understand the importance and power of the ability to focus one's attention, will power, and cognitive control in creating life success. Click here to listen to the interview.
Interview with Dr. John Mayer
How Personal Intelligence Shapes Our Lives: A Conversation with John D. Mayer. From picking a life partner, to choosing a career, Jack explains how personal intelligence has a major impact on our ability to make successful decisions. Click here to listen to the interview.
Interview with Dr. Cary Cherniss
Interview with Dr. Marc Brackett
Click HERE to listen to an interview with Dr. Marc Brackett, the newly appointed leader of the Center of Emotional Intelligence which will begin operation at Yale University in April, 2013. In this interview Dr. Brackett shares his vision for the new center.
Emotional and Social Intelligence Competencies: Cross Cultural Implications
Continued research on the assessment and development of emotional and social intelligence competencies represents an opportunity to further both theoretical and applied applications of behavioral science to the management of human capital. While the field has continued to expand over the preceding decades, research has often trailed application, especially as it relates to cross-cultural validity. The purpose of this special issue of Cross Cultural Management - An International Journal serves to focus on cultural issues related to applied use of emotional and social intelligence competencies in diverse cultures. Articles in the special issue include data from various countries including India, Peru, China, Italy, Australia, and the United States. Click here to read more.